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電動汽車--升級了,升級了!(上)

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Science & technology

科技板塊

Electric cars

電動汽車

Pump up the voltage!

加大電壓

Electric vehicles which operate at 800v can be recharged in half the time

800v電動汽車充電時可以節省一半的時間

Electric vehicles (EVS) are becoming commoner. Some 750,000 of them were sold in the first quarter of 2021 according to JATO Dynamics, a British consultancy. JATO reckons EVS now account for just over 4% of new-car sales, up from 2% in the same quarter last year. Yet many potential buyers still suffer from "range anxiety", a wariness about having to interrupt a long journey while an EV's battery is recharged. The good news is that the time required to do this is about to be slashed.

電動汽車(EVS)變得越來越普遍。據英國諮詢公司JATO Dynamics透露,2021年第一季度(1~3月)電動汽車的銷量在75萬台左右。據JATO估計,目前電動汽車在新車銷售中所佔比例略高於4%,高於去年同期的2%。然而,許多潛在買家仍有“里程焦慮”,即電動汽車在跑長途時需要中斷行程進行充電。好消息是,充電所需時間將大大縮短。

Most EVS operate at 400 volts (400v). But a number of producers and their component suppliers are now gearing up to introduce 800v drive systems. Higher voltages supply the same amount of power with less current, which means electric cables can be made lighter—the consequent weight saving helping to increase a vehicle's range, says Christoph Gillen, a technology director for GKN Automotive, a British components group which recently announced that it is accelerating its development of 800v drive systems. As most cabling is made from copper, the price of which has been soaring, this should also save carmakers money.

大多數電動汽車在400伏(400v)電壓下工作。但許多生產商及其零部件供應商現在正準備引進800v驅動系統。GKN汽車公司的技術總監克里斯托夫·吉倫表示,更高的電壓以更小的電流提供相同的功率,這意味着電纜可以做得更輕,由此產生的重量減輕有助於增加車輛的行駛里程。該公司最近宣佈正在加速其800v驅動系統的開發。由於大多數電纜都是由銅製成的,而銅價一直在飆升,這也為汽車製造商節省了資金。

20210821_std001_副本.jpg

What drivers are most likely to notice, though, according to Dr Gillen, is that vehicles with 800v drive systems will be able to make greater use of some of the latest fast chargers. For instance, Ionity, a German company backed by a number of carmakers, is building a network of 350kw fast chargers across Europe. These automatically optimise charging speed to the maximum that a vehicle can handle. Using one of these, an EV with an 800v system will be able to recharge about twice as quickly as a similar vehicle with a 400v system.

不過,吉倫博士表示,最可能引起司機們注意的是,裝有800v驅動系統的汽車能夠更好地使用一些最新的快速充電器。例如,由多家汽車製造商支持的德國公司Ionity正在全歐洲建設一個350千瓦的快速充電網絡,能夠自動優化充電速度至該車可承載的最大充電速度。若使用其中一種,配備800v系統的電動汽車的充電速度會是配備400v系統的同類汽車的兩倍。

Fast chargers are also more efficient. All chargers take electricity from the grid, which uses an alternating current (AC). When an EV is plugged into a standard charging point, its systems convert AC into direct current (DC), which is what a battery needs to store electricity. Fast chargers bypass the vehicle's converter, using their own beefier bits of kit to pump a DC charge directly into the battery.

快速充電器也變得更有效率。所有的充電器都從電網中獲取電能,而電網使用的是交流電。當電動汽車插入標準充電點時,其系統將交流電轉換為電池存儲電力所需要的直流電(DC)。快速充電器繞過車輛的轉換器,使用自己的強大套件直接將直流電注入電池。

譯文由可可原創,僅供學習交流使用,未經許可請勿轉載。

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